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Monday Morning Ready01.06.2017
Jumpstart Your Week!

Of the songs heard during the credits following the acclaimed 2014 Ava DuVernay film "Selma", one of them won an Academy Award and a Golden Globe award. It was performed by John Legend and the rapper Common. But another track in the credits features the very voice of the marchers. The lyrics to their songs spoke of hope, defiance and unity.... < read more >
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Grade 3-4

What is your favorite song? How do you feel when you hear or sing that song?

Grade 5-6

Carl Benkert's recording "Freedom Songs: Selma Alabama" was released over 50 years ago. What about the recording do you think is so special or important that it has never been out of print since?

Grade 7-8

According to the article, Carl Benkert made a point of being at important events of the 20th century. While in Selma, Alabama, he even hid a big, bulky tape recorder under his coat to record what was going on. Why do you think Benkert felt it was so important to record history in this way?

Grade 9-10

According to the article, Carl Benkert told his daughter that when people at the march in Selma, Alabama, were scared, they would sing. Why do you think they did that? How do you think singing helped them deal with everything that was happening?

LESSON PLAN
Decipher Freedom Songs

PROCESS:

  1. Inform students that songs have a long and important role in African American history. Slaves weren't allowed to read and write. So they expressed themselves through song. Often the words had a hidden meaning. It would have been dangerous for slaves to sing about their anger, resentment or desire to be free in a way their owners could understand. 
  2. Explain that sometimes songs were also used as codes. Harriet Tubman, for example, sang different songs to relay messages to runaway slaves as she ushered them along the Underground Railroad. One song meant it was safe to emerge from hiding. Another song told them that slave catchers were in the area and they should stay put.
  3. Remind the class that songs also played a big role in the protests for Civil Rights in the 1960s. Display Carl Benkert's recording "Freedom Songs: Selma Alabama" on the Smithsonian Folkways site. As a class, review the song titles. Encourage students to identify common themes in the title names.
  4. As a class, in small groups or with a partner, invite students to listen to one or more of the song tracks. If you wish, download and display the PDF "Linear Notes," which accompanies the track listing. Have students follow along with the text as they hear the songs play. Challenge students to decipher the meaning of each song they hear.

ASSESSMENT: 

Invite students to share their interpretations with the class. Encourage them to identify any hidden meanings they think the songs contain. Challenge them to provide historical evidence that supports the connections they see.

CUSTOMIZE THE LESSON:     

Grades 3-4:
Select one song for students to decipher. The song snippets on the Smithsonian Folkways site are brief. So you may wish to conduct research to find a longer version of the song and its lyrics. Read aloud the song title. Discuss what the title might mean. Then display the lyrics and play the song for the class. As a class, analyze the song and its lyrics. Challenge students to identify historical events that support their interpretations. Discuss reasons why the song was important during the Civil Rights Movement.

Grades 5-6:
Divide the class into small groups. Then assign one song from the Track Listing on the Smithsonian Folkways site to each group. Instruct groups to conduct research to find a longer version of their assigned songs and the lyrics. Give groups time to analyze their songs. Then challenge each group to explain what their song means. Challenge students to identify historical events that support their interpretations. Discuss reasons why each song was important during the Civil Rights Movement.

Grades 7-8:
Divide the class into pairs. Instruct each pair to select one song from the Track Listing on the Smithsonian Folkways site. Have partners conduct research to find a longer version of their songs and the lyrics. Give partners time to analyze their songs. Instruct them to explain how they felt when they heard the song and why they think the lyrics made them feel this way. Challenge them to identify any hidden meanings they think the song contains and to provide historical evidence that supports their opinions. Discuss the impact of songs like these during the Civil Rights Movement. 

Grades 9-10:
Divide the class into pairs. Instruct each pair to select one song from the Track Listing on the Smithsonian Folkways site. Have partners conduct research to find a longer version of their songs and the lyrics. Then give partners time to analyze their songs. Encourage them to explain what they think the song reveals about the composer and how the composer felt about his or her situation. Instruct them to identify specific lyrics in the song that they think may have hidden meanings. Challenge them to supply background knowledge that supports the connections they see. Compare and contrast the interpretations of pairs that studied the same song. As a class, discuss the impact songs like these had on the Civil Rights Movement.

SMITHSONIAN RESOURCES
South Africa, Free At Last: The Freedom Songs of South Africa and the Civil Rights Movement in Ameri
In this Smithsonian Folkways lesson, students examine the musical and historical connection between songs that grew out of opposition to apartheid in South Africa and the African American Freedom Songs of the Civil Rights Movement. Although designed for high school choral students, the lesson is easily adapted for younger students.

Protest Songs: A Musical Introduction
In this Smithsonian Folkways lesson, middle school students will sing and listen to famous protest songs. They will learn to discuss the musical significance as well as the sociological and historical context of these songs.

Freedom Songs
In this activity from the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, elementary students will listen to freedom songs and then make their own version of one of the songs.

Sing For Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs
Invite students to explore this Smithsonian Folkways site to hear snippets from more Freedom Songs sung during the Civil Rights Movement.

History Explorer Podcast: Freedom Songs
In this episode of the History Explorer podcast series, Christopher Wilson, Director of the Program in African American Culture, discusses the use of Freedom Songs in the Civil Rights Movement and how they are incorporated into public programs at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.

The New Exhibition on Black Music Could Give Other Museums a Run for Their Money
Read this Smithsonian article to learn about the collections in the show “Musical Crossroads” at the African American History Museum that are near encyclopedic in their scope.

Remembering King
In this activity, students will think of three symbols to represent Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and create a window decoration with those symbols.
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